What is Production Part Approval Process?

The production Part Approval Process is known as PPAP. To approve suppliers and guarantee that their products satisfy consumer criteria, the manufacturing sector uses a standardized process. Before a supplier is given the go-ahead to supply parts to a client, a number of PPAP-related procedures must be followed. The aim of PPAP is to guarantee that suppliers have a strong quality management system in place and can consistently deliver products that match client specifications. To verify that the products they get fit their standards, many clients, especially in the automotive and aerospace industries, demand PPAP.

Manufacturers must complete seven documents for PPAP, which are crucial in the automotive and aerospace industries:

  • Product Description
  • Samples of the part
  • Manufacturing process
  • Process of Inspection
  • Quality Plan
  • Part history
  • Form for supplier approval

To ensure efficient manufacturing and on-time delivery of your products, it is crucial to understand PPAP and how to apply it.

What is the purpose of PPAP?

The aim of the Production Part Approval Process, or PPAP, is to make sure that a manufacturer can consistently create a product that complies with client specifications throughout mass production. It is a standardized procedure used, among others, in the automotive and aerospace sectors to validate and approve the parts and procedures used in the creation of new products or parts. A package of documents, comprising engineering drawings, material specifications, test results, and other pertinent data, must be submitted by manufacturers under PPAP in order to prove their capacity to meet customer needs and specifications. Utilizing PPAP, producers can lower the likelihood of quality problems, flaws, and non-conformities throughout production, which ultimately boosts customer happiness and enhances product performance.

How does it relate to quality control and Six Sigma?

Six Sigma is a quality management methodology that aims to minimize defects and improve the overall quality of a product or process. It involves statistical analysis and data-driven decision-making to pinpoint and eliminate the root causes of flaws, errors, or inefficiencies.

Contrarily, quality management is a more comprehensive strategy that covers all facets of an organization’s operations, including employee involvement, process improvement, and ongoing learning and growth.

Six Sigma is a branch of quality management that specializes in process enhancement and fault elimination. It is frequently utilized as a technique to accomplish particular aims and objectives inside a bigger quality management framework.

In general, quality management and Six Sigma are related ideas with the shared objective of enhancing organizational performance and ensuring customer satisfaction. Organizations may optimize processes, cut costs, and improve their reputation in the marketplace by integrating Six Sigma practices into a comprehensive quality management framework.

Why PPAP is important?

PPAP is significant for a number of reasons:-

1. Quality assurance:- The PPAP offers a thorough approach to quality control that involves building a quality management system, assuring that the product satisfies client criteria, and assessing the production process of the supplier.

2. Risk management:- PPAP assists in identifying and reducing any risks that can affect the quality and safety of a product. Defects and failures are considerably decreased by requiring suppliers to go through a rigorous vetting process.

3. Cost reduction:- PPAP can assist cut costs by locating and resolving problems early in the product development process. The need for rework and scrap is reduced by ensuring that parts meet the necessary requirements and quality standards.

4. Customer satisfaction:- PPAP makes sure that components fulfill the needs and expectations of the client, leading to better levels of patronage.

When is the PPAP required, and who performs it?

PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) is frequently carried out by suppliers in the automobile industry and other sectors that demand high levels of quality. The goal of PPAP is to show the customer that the supplier has a capable manufacturing process that can reliably create parts that meet the necessary requirements and quality standards.

At different stages of the product development process, PPAP is necessary, including:

1. New product introduction

2. Changes to existing products

3. Supplier changes

Benefits of PPAP and APQP

PPAP and APQP offer several benefits to manufacturing companies, including:

  1. Lower possibility of product failure
  2. Improved client satisfaction
  3. Increased productivity effectiveness
  4. Decreased production costs
  5. Improved interaction between customers and suppliers

Difference between PPAP and APQP?

APQP is a quality planning procedure used to make sure the product satisfies the customer’s quality expectations throughout the product design phase. There are five stages to this process: plan and define the program, product, and process design and development, product and process validation and launch, feedback, assessment, and corrective action. In order to produce a product with a high level of consistency, APQP strives to design and develop it.

PPAP is a quality assurance procedure used to ensure that the product satisfies the needs of the client. Part Submission Warrant (PSW), Part Approval paperwork, procedure Control Plan, Measurement System Analysis (MSA), and Part Performance Results are the five levels of paperwork that are involved in this procedure. PPAP is used by the provider to demonstrate the production process’ capabilities and attempts to ensure that the product complies with the customer’s requirements.

How is it Performed?

In order to do PPAP, you must follow these steps:

1. Identify the requirement for PPAP: The maker must first ascertain whether the client needs PPAP. To make sure that the supplier can consistently supply parts at the specified quality level, the client may submit a PPAP request.

2. Pick the right PPAP level: PPAP includes five levels of documentation, and the right level is chosen depending on the needs of the customer.

3. Obtain customer consent: Before starting the PPAP process, the manufacturer must have the client’s consent.

4. Create a PPAP package: The manufacturer is required to create a PPAP package that contains information such as a Part Submission Warrant (PSW), Part Approval Documentation (PAD), Process Control Plan (PCP), Measurement System Analysis (MSA), and Part Performance Results (PPR).

5. Conduct initial production run: Using the PPAP package, the manufacturer must carry out an initial production run.

6. Send the PPAP to the client: Customer clearance is required before the manufacturer may deliver the PPAP package to the customer.

7. Obtain client approval: After reviewing the PPAP package, the customer will decide whether to accept it or not. The maker must make the necessary adjustments and resubmit the package if it is denied.

8. customer approval: After reviewing the PPAP package, the customer will decide whether to accept it or not. The maker must make the necessary adjustments and resubmit the package if it is denied.

9. Monitor the production process: After the PPAP package has been accepted, the manufacturer must keep an eye on the production to make sure the parts are being made to an acceptable standard of quality.

What exactly are the 18 Elements of a PPAP?

The 18 PPAP elements are as follows

  1. Design Records: It includes design drawings, specifications, and other relevant data.
  2. Engineering Change Documents: These include any changes to the product design.
  3. Customer Engineering Approval: It includes approval from the customer regarding the product design.
  4. Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA): It includes a detailed analysis of potential failure modes and their effects on the product.
  5. Process Flow Diagrams: These include a graphical representation of the manufacturing process.
  6. Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA): It includes a detailed analysis of potential failure modes and their effects on the manufacturing process.
  7. Control Plans: These include a detailed plan for controlling the manufacturing process.
  8. Measurement System Analysis (MSA): It includes an analysis of the measurement system used to measure the product.
  9. Dimensional Results: These include measurements of the product’s dimensions.
  10. Material Performance Results: It includes tests and results related to the product’s material performance.
  11. Initial Process Studies: It includes studies related to the initial manufacturing process.
  12. Qualified Laboratory Documentation: It includes documentation related to any testing performed by a qualified laboratory.
  13. Appearance Approval Reports: These include a report on the product’s appearance.
  14. Sample Production Parts: It includes sample parts produced during the manufacturing process.
  15. Master Sample: It includes a master sample that meets all customer requirements.
  16. Checking Aids: These include any tools or equipment used to check the product.
  17. Customer-Specific Requirements: These include any additional requirements specified by the customer.
  18. Part Submission Warrant (PSW): It includes a document that confirms that all PPAP requirements have been met.

There are five levels of submissions for the PPAP report, with Level 3 serving as the standard level of PPAP submission approval.

PPAP Levels

There are five PPAP levels, with each having a higher level of supporting paperwork and proof of compliance. They are as follows:

  1. Level 1: Part Submission Warrant (PSW) Only submitted to the customer.
  2. Level 2: PSW with Product Samples
  3. Level 3: PSW with Product Samples and complete supporting data
  4. Level 4: PSW with Product Samples and Full Process Control Plan
  5. Level 5: PSW with Product Samples and Statistical Process Control

When is PPAP Used ?

When a supplier is creating a new part, altering an existing part, or when a client wants a PPAP, PPAP is employed. It is also utilized when a supplier’s production facility changes or when the manufacturing process is altered.

When there is a high risk of failure or when the components being produced are essential to the overall functionality of the product, PPAP is necessary. When the customer demands a high degree of confidence in the caliber of the parts being produced, PPAP is also used.